PXE网络安装CentOS7.1

PXE网络安装CentOS 7.1,安装环境:
先安装一台桌面版CentOS(使用CentOS-7-x86_64-DVD-1503-01.iso安装),作为启动服务器,ip为192.168.72.32。

#安装http、tftp、dhcp服务
yum install httpd tftp-server dhcp

#安装syslinux,安装后才有文件 /usr/share/syslinux/pxelinux.0
yum install syslinux 

#安装system-config-kickstart配置启动文件,
yum install system-config-kickstart
#DHCP配置
cp /usr/share/doc/dhcp-4.2.5/dhcpd.conf.example /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf

DHCP配置文件修改

# cat /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf 
# dhcpd.conf
#
# Sample configuration file for ISC dhcpd
#

# option definitions common to all supported networks...
#domain-name 修改为对应名称
option domain-name "localhost";
option domain-name-servers 223.5.5.5, 223.6.6.6;

default-lease-time 600;
max-lease-time 7200;

# Use this to enble / disable dynamic dns updates globally.
#ddns-update-style none;

# If this DHCP server is the official DHCP server for the local
# network, the authoritative directive should be uncommented.
#authoritative;

# Use this to send dhcp log messages to a different log file (you also
# have to hack syslog.conf to complete the redirection).
log-facility local7;

# No service will be given on this subnet, but declaring it helps the 
# DHCP server to understand the network topology.


subnet 192.168.72.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
        range 192.168.72.243 192.168.72.250;
        option routers 192.168.72.1;
        next-server 192.168.72.32; #TFTP服务器IP
        filename "pxelinux.0";

}

#tftp配置,disable = no

# cat /etc/xinetd.d/tftp 
# default: off
# description: The tftp server serves files using the trivial file transfer \
#       protocol.  The tftp protocol is often used to boot diskless \
#       workstations, download configuration files to network-aware printers, \
#       and to start the installation process for some operating systems.
service tftp
{
        socket_type             = dgram
        protocol                = udp
        wait                    = yes
        user                    = root
        server                  = /usr/sbin/in.tftpd
        server_args             = -s /var/lib/tftpboot
        disable                 = no  #修改
        per_source              = 11
        cps                     = 100 2
        flags                   = IPv4
}

httpd配置

cd /etc/httpd/conf.d/
#移除并备份conf文件,目的不显示测试页面
mv autoindex.conf autoindex.conf.bak
mv userdir.conf userdir.conf.bak
mv welcome.conf welcome.conf.bak

#http目录文件准备
mkdir /var/www/html/centos
mount ~/CentOS-7-x86_64-DVD-1503-01.iso /var/www/html/centos

/var/www/html/ks.cfg 文件配置

# cat /var/www/html/ks.cfg 
#platform=x86, AMD64, or Intel EM64T
#version=DEVEL
# Install OS instead of upgrade
install
# Keyboard layouts
keyboard 'us'# Reboot after installation
reboot
# Root password
rootpw --iscrypted $1$BhbE2ZLC$D/XPM6Jscst055R3X0nLp.
# System timezone
timezone Asia/Shanghai --isUtc
# Use network installation
url --url="http://192.168.72.32/centos"  #最后面不需要加 /
# System language
lang en_US
# Firewall configuration
firewall --disabled
# Network information
network  --bootproto=dhcp --device=ens0 --onboot=yes --noipv6 --hostname=pxe_one
# System authorization information
auth  --useshadow  --passalgo=sha512
# Use graphical install
graphical
firstboot --disable
# SELinux configuration
selinux --disabled

# System bootloader configuration
# 新硬盘需要创建mbr
bootloader --location=mbr
# Clear the Master Boot Record
zerombr
# Partition clearing information
clearpart --all --initlabel 
# Disk partitioning information
part / --asprimary --fstype="xfs" --size=20480
part /boot --asprimary --fstype="xfs" --size=512
part swap --asprimary --fstype="swap" --size=2048
part /data --asprimary --fstype="xfs" --grow --size=1

%packages
@core
#@chinese-support
#iptraf
#vim
#openssh-server
#ntp
#wget

%end

http根目录结构

# tree -aL 2 /var/www/html/ 
/var/www/html/
├── centos
│   ├── CentOS_BuildTag
│   ├── .discinfo
│   ├── EFI
│   ├── EULA
│   ├── GPL
│   ├── images
│   ├── isolinux
│   ├── LiveOS
│   ├── Packages
│   ├── repodata
│   ├── RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-7
│   ├── RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-Testing-7
│   ├── TRANS.TBL
│   └── .treeinfo
└── ks.cfg

7 directories, 9 files

tftp目录文件准备

#tftp目录文件准备
cp /usr/share/syslinux/pxelinux.0 /var/lib/tftpboot/
mkdir /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg
cp /var/www/html/centos/isolinux/isolinux.cfg /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg/default
cp /var/www/html/centos/images/pxeboot/{vmlinuz,initrd.img} /var/lib/tftpboot/
cp /var/www/html/centos/isolinux/{vesamenu.c32,boot.msg,splash.png} /var/lib/tftpboot/

# tree /var/lib/tftpboot/
/var/lib/tftpboot/
├── boot.msg
├── initrd.img
├── pxelinux.0
├── pxelinux.cfg
│   └── default
├── splash.png
├── vesamenu.c32
└── vmlinuz

1 directory, 7 files

/var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg/default 文件

# cat /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg/default
default vesamenu.c32
timeout 60

display boot.msg

# Clear the screen when exiting the menu, instead of leaving the menu displayed.
# For vesamenu, this means the graphical background is still displayed without
# the menu itself for as long as the screen remains in graphics mode.
menu clear
menu background splash.png
menu title CentOS 7
menu vshift 8
menu rows 18
menu margin 8
#menu hidden
menu helpmsgrow 15
menu tabmsgrow 13

# Border Area
menu color border * #00000000 #00000000 none

# Selected item
menu color sel 0 #ffffffff #00000000 none

# Title bar
menu color title 0 #ff7ba3d0 #00000000 none

# Press [Tab] message
menu color tabmsg 0 #ff3a6496 #00000000 none

# Unselected menu item
menu color unsel 0 #84b8ffff #00000000 none

# Selected hotkey
menu color hotsel 0 #84b8ffff #00000000 none

# Unselected hotkey
menu color hotkey 0 #ffffffff #00000000 none

# Help text
menu color help 0 #ffffffff #00000000 none

# A scrollbar of some type? Not sure.
menu color scrollbar 0 #ffffffff #ff355594 none

# Timeout msg
menu color timeout 0 #ffffffff #00000000 none
menu color timeout_msg 0 #ffffffff #00000000 none

# Command prompt text
menu color cmdmark 0 #84b8ffff #00000000 none
menu color cmdline 0 #ffffffff #00000000 none

# Do not display the actual menu unless the user presses a key. All that is displayed is a timeout message.

menu tabmsg Press Tab for full configuration options on menu items.

menu separator # insert an empty line
menu separator # insert an empty line

label linux
  menu label ^Install CentOS 7
  menu default
  kernel vmlinuz
# append initrd=initrd.img inst.stage2=hd:LABEL=CentOS\x207\x20x86_64 quiet 
  append initrd=initrd.img inst.ks=http://192.168.72.32/ks.cfg quiet

label check
  menu label Test this ^media & install CentOS 7
  kernel vmlinuz
  append initrd=initrd.img inst.stage2=hd:LABEL=CentOS\x207\x20x86_64 rd.live.check quiet

menu separator # insert an empty line

# utilities submenu
menu begin ^Troubleshooting
  menu title Troubleshooting

label vesa
  menu indent count 5
  menu label Install CentOS 7 in ^basic graphics mode
  text help
        Try this option out if you're having trouble installing
        CentOS 7.
  endtext
  kernel vmlinuz
  append initrd=initrd.img inst.stage2=hd:LABEL=CentOS\x207\x20x86_64 xdriver=vesa nomodeset quiet

label rescue
  menu indent count 5
  menu label ^Rescue a CentOS system
  text help
        If the system will not boot, this lets you access files
        and edit config files to try to get it booting again.
  endtext
  kernel vmlinuz
  append initrd=initrd.img inst.stage2=hd:LABEL=CentOS\x207\x20x86_64 rescue quiet

label memtest
  menu label Run a ^memory test
  text help
        If your system is having issues, a problem with your
        system's memory may be the cause. Use this utility to
        see if the memory is working correctly.
  endtext
  kernel memtest

menu separator # insert an empty line

label local
  menu label Boot from ^local drive
  localboot 0xffff

menu separator # insert an empty line
menu separator # insert an empty line

label returntomain
  menu label Return to ^main menu
  menu exit

menu end

启动服务器

#启动服务器
iptables -F
systemctl start httpd.service
systemctl status httpd.service
systemctl enable httpd.service

systemctl start dhcpd.service
systemctl status dhcpd.service
systemctl enable dhcpd.service

systemctl start xinetd.service
systemctl status xinetd.service
systemctl enable xinetd.service

systemctl start tftp.socket
systemctl status tftp.socket
systemctl enable tftp.socket

systemctl start tftp.service
systemctl status tftp.service
systemctl enable tftp.service

查看服务端口是否正常

#查看服务端口是否正常 tcp-80、udp-67、udp-69
ss -tilnp
ss -uilnp
#或
netstat -nat
netstat -nau

#查看dhcp地址分配情况
/var/lib/dhcpd/dhcpd.leases


测试安装:

若安装完毕后,启动到下图处不动了,试试修改ks.cfg中 bootloader –location=mbr(新硬盘没有mbr)

参考文档
#大规模部署无人职守Centos 7
http://www.centoscn.com/CentOS/Intermediate/2015/0126/4563.html

#CentOS7.0最小化安装后没有桌面的解决方法
http://tianshoulong.blog.51cto.com/4998102/1571464

#CentOS 中 YUM 安装桌面环境
http://cnzhx.net/blog/centos-yum-install-desktop/

 

附:

#CentOS 7.1 桌面环境安装

yum grouplist

yum groupinstall "X Window System"

yum groupinstall "GNOME"
#或
yum groupinstall "KDE"

#老版本
#yum groupinstall "GNOME Desktop Environment"
#yum groupinstall "KDE (K Desktop Environment)"
#yum groupremove 卸载

# pwd
/etc/systemd/system
# ll default.target
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 37 Apr 15 18:54 default.target -> /lib/systemd/system/multi-user.target

#CentOS 7修改默认桌面启动
ln -sf /lib/systemd/system/graphical.target /etc/systemd/system/default.target
#修改为命令行启动
ln -sf /lib/systemd/system/multi-user.target /etc/systemd/system/default.target

#CentOS7之前版本
# vi /etc/inittab 
id:5:initdefault

reboot

yum -y groupinstall "Graphical Administration Tools"
yum -y groupinstall "Internet Browser"
yum -y groupinstall "General Purpose Desktop"
yum -y groupinstall "Office Suite and Productivity"
yum -y groupinstall "Graphics Creation Tools"

 

 

 

PXE网络安装CentOS7.1》上有2条评论

    1. aigol 文章作者

      我这是安装成功的过程记录。
      /dev/root不存在,没有遇到。刚刚搜索了一下,别人也有类似问题,你具体是什么问题导致可以自己看看。

      回复

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